Stereotype Threat, the fear of failing in a way that reinforces derogatory stereotypes of one's social group, undermines performance in school, sports and the workplace. Psychologists Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson of Stanford University, coined the term in 1995.
Neil de Grasse Tyson, African American astrophysicist and science communicator, said "In the perception of society my academic failures are expected and my academic successes are attributed to others. To spend most of my life fighting these attitudes levies an emotional tax that is a form of intellectual emasculation. It is a tax that I would not wish upon my enemies." Yong, E. (2013). Armor against prejudice. Scientific American, 308(6), 76-80. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete
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"Some research has indicated that negative consequences can, to some extent, be mitigated. For example, the effect may be reduced by educating students about the issue and underscoring that the existence of stereotypes and stereotype threat does not necessarily mean that performance will be adversely affected. One approach that has gained considerable influence in recent years is teaching students that intelligence and academic performance can be improved through effort and hard work. See growth mindset for a more detailed discussion."
Stereotype Treat. (2013, August 29). In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/stereotype-threat/
Dr. Dewald Wing Sue defines microaggressions as "...the everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative messages to target persons based solely upon their marginalized group membership." Sue, D.W. (2010). Microaggressions: More than just race. Blog. Psychology Today. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
Vega, T. (2014, Mar 22). Everyday slights tied to race add up to big campus topic. New York Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/
Originating as a blog project for two Columbia students, The Microaggressions Project moved the term to the larger world outside academia.