Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

TX Corequisite Project: Research

Articles Header Graphic

“Accelerating Student Success: The Case for Corequisite Instruction.” A robust corequisite model integrates gateway course content with lifelong tools such as time management and study skills that help students beyond the scope of one course. Corequisite remediation may not completely eliminate developmental courses; however, "a fundamental redesign of the support system for academically underprepared students" will include corequisite remediation (Vandal, 2014). This broader "support system" may integrate corequisite courses with the current (or similar) modular curriculum with non-modular precollege courses such as MTH 5 or MTH 9 in the Virginia Community College System (VCCS).

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Emblom-Callahan, Maggie, et al Inquiry,  Inquiry: The Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges vol. 22, no. 1, July 2019.


"The Case for Corequisites: What Are the Ingredients of Success?"  Early evidence suggests that corequisites hold promise as an approach to help underprepared students achieve greater levels of college success. At the Community College of Baltimore County, developmental education students who enrolled in corequisites were nearly 30 percent more likely to pass their first college-level course. In Tennessee, the percentage of students passing an introductory college-level course in their first year of college doubled after the state passed a law requiring all underprepared students to enroll in corequisites.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Lindsay Daugherty, Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Readiness, May 2018.


"The Corequisite Model: Origins, Evolution, Data, and Net Effects"  This paper explores the origins, evolution, data, and net effects of the current corequisite model and its numerous variations.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Alexandros M. Goudas, NOSS Practitioner to Practitioner, 2019.


"Developmental education and community college student success: Are the odds ever in their favor?"  Utilizing student-level transcript data from the Center for Community College Student Engagement (referred to as the Center), this study examines the relationship of developmental status with gateway course completion and credential (either associate degree or certificate) completion, controlling for level of entry into the developmental sequence, history of enrollment status, and other student characteristics.



Developmental Education: Preparing White Campuses for African-American Students. The article discusses the role of developmental education on the academic preparedness of Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs) for the African-American students. Topics discussed include the role of a professor in the academic achievement of college students and underprepared students, the issue on multiculturalism and diversity in the universities and colleges, and the function of higher education in the academic success of the students.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Aretha Faye Marbley, Fred Arthur Bonner II, Vicki A. Williams, Pamela Morris, Wendy Ross, & Hansel Burley. 2013.


 "Does Classroom Composition Matter? College Classrooms as Moderators of Developmental Education Effectiveness."  This study investigates how the impact of developmental education is moderated by classroom composition. Drawing on a regression discontinuity design, we used data from 3,429 community college students, nested within 223 classrooms, to explore the extent to which classroom and instructor characteristics moderated the effect of developmental English students’ performance in a successive, college-level English course. 

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Moss, B. G., Kelcey, B., & Showers, N.Community College Review, 2014.

Reports Header Graphic

"Designing and Implementing Corequisite Models of Developmental Education Findings from Texas Community Colleges."   This report focuses on the corequisite implementation experiences of Texas community colleges in fall 2016. Authors provide background on recent developmental education reforms in Texas and across the nation and describe their rigorous experimental study of integrated reading and writing corequisites in Texas. Then, they describe early implementation findings drawn from interviews and survey data collected from faculty and administrators at 36 community colleges in Texas. The findings indicate that Texas community colleges are implementing a range of different types of corequisite models, and an appendix details wide-ranging decisions on design and implementation. The report also documents four types of challenges colleges have faced in implementing corequisites: lack of stakeholder buy-in, issues with scheduling and advising, limited instructional preparation and support, and uncertainty around state policy. After describing these challenges, the authors discuss strategies reported by institutions as helpful in avoiding or overcoming these challenges. Finally, the report concludes by reflecting on these early findings and their implications for the developmental education reform movement.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Daugherty, Lindsay, Celia J. Gomez, Diana Gehlhaus, Alexandra Mendoza-Graf, and Trey Miller, RAND Corporation, 2018. 


"Developmental Education Update and 2018-2023 Statewide Plan for Supporting Underprepared Students"  This report includes preliminary outcomes required by key legislation, House Bill (HB) 2223 (85th Legislature, Regular Session), supporting corequisite implementation. Furthermore, while still early in statewide implementation, these reforms have an important impact in helping to build students’ momentum toward meeting their completion and transfer goals.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  A Report to the Texas Legislature PerRider 33, 85th Texas Legislature –Developmental Education and SB 1776, 84th Texas Legislature –College Preparatory Courses, November 2018.


"Early Findings from a National Survey of Developmental Education Practices. Research Brief."  Too many students are being placed unnecessarily into developmental courses, and the structure and traditional instructional practices in developmental education can pose barriers to student success.2 Educators are developing and implementing many innovations to address these issues, but little is known about the breadth and scale of reforms across the country.3 The Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Readiness (CAPR), a partnership between MDRC and the Community College Research Center, is conducting research to examine these issues. This brief presents early findings from CAPR’s nationally representative survey of nearly 1,000 open-access and nonselective postsecondary institutions.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Elizabeth Z. Rutschow and Alexander K. Mayer, Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Readiness - research brief, 2018.


"Expectations meet reality: The underprepared student and community colleges."  Expectations Meet Reality: The Underprepared Student and Community Colleges, with findings collected from more than 70,000 community college students across 150 institutions and more than 4,500 community college faculty respondents from 56 institutions, explores the typical community college student experience in the areas of assessment, placement, and developmental education—and it also highlights innovative practices in work with underprepared students.


Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Center for community college student engagement, Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin, College of Education, Department of Educational Administration, Program in Higher Education Leadership, 2016.


Not Just Faster: Equity and Learning Centered Developmental Education Strategies.  This report includes a summary of the DE interventions, evaluation strategies, and program outcomes performed at participating institutions. Additionally, it offers descriptions of the evidence-based models that have been effective for DE at the MSIs. The report goes on to highlight effective strategies utilized by the campuses in an effort to scale the initiatives and lessons to consider for scaling such models. Finally, it concludes with recommendations for advancing developmental reform efforts to improve teaching and learning while simultaneously addressing equity issues.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Jones, T., & Assalone, A.  Atlanta, GA: Southern Education Foundation. 2016.


"When College Students Start Behind: College Completion Series: Part Five"  In this report, we review that research, describe findings from studies on four types of reforms under way at various colleges, and conclude with our view that a wholesale redesign of the student experience at community colleges is needed to make a real difference in the outcomes of underprepared students.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Thomas Bailey and Shanna Smith Jaggers, The Century Foundation, June 2016.


The White House Summit on Community Colleges Conference Papers-Developmental Education in Community.  In this Brief we first report on evidence about the effectiveness (or, unfortunately, in too many cases, the ineffectiveness) of remediation and then provide information about the progression of students through the developmental sequence. We discuss problems associated with the crucial assessments and make a brief statement about costs. We then describe three initiatives designed to improve the performance of remedial services.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Thomas Bailey and Sung-Woo Cho Community College Research Center, 2010.

Toolk Kits and Guide Header Graphic

"Tools for Improving Corequisite Models: A Guide for College Practitioners"   This toolkit acts as a guide to improvement strategies for teams of practitioners at colleges, providing them with the knowledge and tools they need to carry out rapid cycles of data-driven improvement. Topics discussed include identifying a problem of practice and objectives for improvement, carrying out Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, and conducting rapid-cycle evaluation. The toolkit includes tools and tips for practitioners, with a supplement of seven worksheets that colleges can use for planning improvement efforts.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Daugherty, Lindsay, Rita Karam, Daniel Basco, and Julia H. Kaufman, RAND Corporation, 2019.

Taking the First Steps Towards 100% Implementation of the Corequisite Model. In anticipation of the HB 2223 mandate, the Northwest Campus of Tarrant County College chose to offer four different types of corequisite pairings during Spring 2018.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Cindy Allen, Anita Biber, Angela Chilton, and Leslie Johnson, Journal of College Academic Support Programs, 2018.



Complete College America Implementation GuideResources for understanding the research and implementing Corequisite Support.


Corequisite Implementation Guide- Mcgraw Hill  Got corequisites on your mind? Whether you're in the early planning stages or looking to refine your approach, we're with you every step of the way. Here you'll find tips, tricks, and techniques from peers who have navigated their own corequisite journey.


Corequisite Visioning Worksheet - Dana Center Math Pathways  The Corequisite Visioning Worksheet is designed to help colleges develop a line of sight from where they are now to where they need to be for scaling corequisites for underprepared students within their comprehensive student success strategy. Use this tool to 1) identify capacities for change the institution has already established that will support the successful and sustainable scaling of corequisite models, 2) anticipate areas that will need specific strategic attention, and 3) surface outstanding issues for consideration.


"Addressing Flawed Research in Developmental Education"  This paper explores the recent research's primary claims regarding the effectiveness of developmental education, the data supporting those claims, their conclusions, and some potentially harmful results. We include different interpretations of that same data along with other infrequently cited studies to help shed light on what the current state of developmental education is with our nation's nearly 1,200 community colleges.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Goudas, Alexandros M.; Boylan, Hunter R. Journal of Developmental Education, 2012.


Addressing Misperceptions of Underprepared Students.  This study examines faculty/staff perceptions of underprepared students as well as the experiences of these students in the college setting.  Through data analysis of surveys from both populations, we identified key areas of focus on which to build a professional development model.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Cassandra O'Sullivan Sachar, Melissa Cheese, Scott Richardson, Global Education Review, 2019.


"Faculty Perspectives on Underprepared Students"  This qualitative study examined the part-time, non-tenure, and tenured faculty member perspectives regarding the importance of assisting underprepared students in the classroom, institutional support provided to the faculty to address underprepared students, and the measures faculty have taken due to underprepared students at a four-year university in a New England state.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Dr. Christopher A. Shankle, Journal of Psychology & Behavioral Science, 2016.


Is Corequisite Remediation Cost-Effective? Early Findings From Tennessee.  This brief examines the cost-effectiveness of the corequisite remediation model as it was implemented in Tennessee in fall 2015. Using transcript data and information on costs, the authors estimate the net effect of corequisite remediation on passing the initial college-level math and writing sequences and find that there are gains in cost-effectiveness in moving from prerequisite to corequisite remediation.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, DocumentsBelfield, Clive; Jenkins, Paul Davis; Lahr, Hana Elizabeth


What Happens to Efficiency and Equity? The Cost Implications of Developmental Education Reform.  This paper uses an economic model of remediation to examine how changes in college course taking before and after the reform altered costs to completing introductory college-level courses in math and English for students and institutions, and whether cost savings differ by racial/ethnic subgroup.

 Mokher, C.G., Park-Gaghan, T.J. & Hu, S.  Res High Educ (2020

Equity, Diveristy, Inclusion

Developmental Education Reform Outcomes by Subpopulation.  [TexShare Login RequiredDiscusses the importance of scrutinizing the outcomes of developmental education reforms across race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, and level of developmental need.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Brathwaite, J., & Edgecombe, N., New Directions for Community Colleges. 2018.


Developmental, Remedial, and Basic Skills: Diverse Programs and Approaches at Community Colleges. [TexShare Login Required]  Community colleges have been challenged to increase their graduation, transfer, and general success rates. Because they serve the largest proportion of nontraditional students and students of color, their participation in programs to enhance the number of college graduates contributes to social equity and justice. One of the biggest obstacles has been students who enter the developmental pipeline and never emerge to the college level, and hence cannot qualify to graduate or transfer. This chapter speaks to several governmental and nongovernmental initiatives to assist developmental education students achieve academic success.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Hagedorn, L. S., & Kuznetsova, New Directions for Institutional Research, 2016.


How ESSA and IDEA Can Support College and Career Readiness for Students with Disabilities. This brief examines how two federal laws, Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and Individuals with Disabilities Educations Act (IDEA), can promote the development of meaningful pathways to postsecondary opportunities, including 2- and 4-year college, non-degree certificate programs, apprenticeships, and more, by ensuring all students are college and career ready, and it provides examples of model programs.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Jenna Tomasello and Betsy Brand, American Youth Policy Forum, The College and Career Readiness and Success Center, January 2018.


Research List from REL on Community college persistence and non-traditional Hispanic males — December 2017  Research reports as well as descriptive study articles on supporting nontraditional Hispanic male students’ persistence in community college from the Regional Education Laboratory Program.


The Role of Postsecondary Remediation for African American Students: A Review of Research.  This review of research first explains why African American students are disproportionately underprepared for college-level work. Then, the authors summarize the debates concerning the role of remediation in higher education, synthesize the research on the effectiveness of postsecondary remediation, and discuss major and recent policy enactments. They draw implications for the ways in which postsecondary remediation affects Africans American students and offer recommendations for future research and policy.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Ryan J. Davis and Robert T. Palmer, The Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2010.


Transforming Remediation: An Essential Part of Campus Equity Efforts.  In the California Acceleration Project (CAP), we help faculty understand that the policies and curricula that higher education has developed to help students who are considered “underprepared” are actually making these students less likely to succeed in college—and further, that students of color are bearing the brunt of the unintended consequences.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Katie Hern and Jennifer Brezina, Diversity & Democracy, 2016.


Underprepared, Ethnically Diverse Community College Students: Factors Contributing to Persistence  The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perceptions of underprepared college students who had participated in a first-year learning community at an urban, culturally diverse, commuter campus in the southeastern United States.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Peter Barbatis, Journal of Developmental Education, 2010.

College Examples

Developmental Education Division - Lee College  The Developmental Education Division at Lee College is here to assist with the success of our students. This division provides developmental courses and support for students who test below college level.


Key components of a successful remedial/developmental education program - University of Hawaii  Key components of a successful remedial/developmental education program include an effective organizational structure, mandatory assessment and diagnostic testing, required orientation, a variety of instructional approaches, integrated learning assistance, structured advising and career/education planning, an effective monitoring system, well prepared faulty, and an effective evaluation system


Developmental Education CCR094 - Front Range Community College  Redesigned course  for developmental College Composition and Reading and Writing course.  This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States.


Taking the First Steps Towards 100% Implementation of the Corequisite Mode - Tarrant County College  In anticipation of the HB 2223 mandate, the Northwest Campus of Tarrant County College chose to offer four different types of corequisite pairings during Spring 2018.


Developmental Education - A&M Texarkana  The purpose of the Developmental Education Plan for Texas A&M University-Texarkana is to provide pertinent information about our developmental education program.


ACC Web Site || Library Web Site || GET HELP! || Search the Library
Contact Us • © Library Services, Austin Community College