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TX Corequisite Project: Research


Co-Requisite Mathematics Models and Gateway Completion  LaGuardia Community College responded to a long-standing crisis in the math remediation approach to bring transformative change to scale via the math co-requisite project.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Abderrazak Belkharraz Idrissi, Milena Cuellar, and Jeanne FunkLaGuardia Community College,City University of New York, Start Strong to Finish, 2020.


Corequisite model: An effective strategy for remediation in freshmen level mathematics courses  The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performances in a freshmen level quantitative reasoning course (QR) under three different instructional models.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, DocumentsUpasana Kashyap and Santhosh Mathew, Journal of STEM Education, 2017.


A Co-Requisite Model for Developmental Mathematics: Innovative Pathway Leads to Positive Outcomes for Education Majors   The pilot of a co-requisite model, involving the collaboration of two academic departments, has proven successful in enhancing students’ academic achievement while addressing social and emotional needs of students.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Charlene Atkins and Ann McCoy, Educational Resistance, March 2017.


Design Principles for Corequisite Mathematics: An Exploration of Corequisite Models for Texas Colleges and Universities in Response to State Legislative Change (House Bill 2223)  Through a synthesis of data collected from interviews, a literature review, and several state and institutional-level surveys, this report offers an analysis of corequisite models to support colleges and universities as they respond to the mandates of House Bill 2223. The report offers a landscape overview of corequisites in higher education and concludes with a discussion of the ongoing implementation considerations associated with corequisite remediation.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Christina Dunigan Kristina Flores Madeline Haynes Chelsea Rangel Amy Velchoff Joanna Warren


Implementing a Corequisite Algebra Gateway Course.  The corequisite model has shown great success in getting students to complete degrees because it allows students to enroll in credit-bearing classes while also providing academic support in conjunction with their regular courses (Edgecombe and Bickerstaff 2018). In Tennessee, for example, 55 percent of students who were enrolled in a corequisite mathematics course in the fall of 2015 earned credit in one semester, compared to 12 percent of students who earned a gateway credit after one year in the previous prerequisite model (Denley, n.d.). The success rate for minority students increased from 6.7 percent to 42.6 percent in one semester in the corequisite math model.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Eric L. Buckles, Nia W. Haydel, Janice Thompson-Sanchez and Yolanda W. Page. Association of American Colleges and Univeristies. 2019.


Relationship between Required Corequisite Learning and Success in College Algebra   This study used a chi-squared test to analyze two groups of new freshmen and their success in College Algebra—one group who participated in corequisite learning and one group who did not participate in corequisite learning, finding that a higher proportion of students succeed in College Algebra when also enrolled in corequisite support.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, DocumentsAmy D. Smith, Georgia Southern University, 2019.


Student Experiences in an Online First-Year Seminar Paired with Remedial Mathematics.  A collective case study approach was used to explore the experiences of students enrolled in an online first-year seminar that was paired with a developmental mathematics course. Students reported different motivating factors and expectations for enrolling in the course, yet all expressed a desire to improve their academic performance and confidence. These results help to inform how delivery of an online FYS can support the goals of students and institutions.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Max Walling, Dana van de Walker, et al. - Sam Houston State University, 2020.


Operation STEM: increasing success and improving retention among mathematically underprepared students in STEM.  The implementation of the OpSTEM program created an experimental design with two treatment groups, where one group received all the treatments and one group received only mandatory supplemental instruction. They were both compared to a control group from before OpSTEM began. Student data collected have demonstrated that mandatory supplemental instruction alone is effective at increasing the pass rate for precalculus courses, and the additional services and incentives provided to the OpSTEM. Additional time is needed to assess the rates at which these students are completing STEM degrees, but preliminarily data show that OpSTEM Scholars' retention rate is higher than the university's retention rate as a whole and higher than the university's retention rate in STEM fields in particular.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Carver, S. D., Van Sickle, J., Holcomb, J. P., Jackson, D. K., Resnick, A., Duffy, S. F., Sridhar, N., Marquard, A., & Quinn, C. M., Journal of STEM Education: Innovations & Research, 2017.


Practices of Remedial Mathematics Students Who Succeed in College: A Case Study of Developmental Math Education at Chief Dull Knife College  This case study of an innovative remedial math program at a tribal college explores the practices of successful underprepared students and the ways in which faculty and staff scaffold these practices.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Todd Lundberg, Clifton Conrad, Marybeth Gasman, Thai-Huy Nguyen, FeleciaE. Commodore, The Review of Higher Education, 2018.


Using Research-Based Instruction to Improve Math Outcomes with Underprepared Students.  [TexShare Login Required]  The authors used a mixed-methods research design to evaluate a multi-tiered system of supports model to address the disturbing failure rates of underprepared college students placed in developmental mathematics at a small state university. While qualitative data gathered from using Participatory Action Research methods directed the two-year professional development program to implement the model, quantitative results demonstrated how the model improved learner outcomes in passing basic and intermediate algebra. Most important, follow-up analyses demonstrated that student participants went on to pass college algebra and the mathematics subtest assessed by the Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency (CAAP) examination to satisfy the state's general education graduation requirements.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Pearce, L. R., Pearce, K. L., & Siewert, D. J., Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 2017.


What Happens to Underprepared First-Time-in-College Students When Developmental Education is Optional? The Case of Developmental Math and Intermediate Algebra in the First Semester.  This study investigated first-semester math course enrollment patterns for underprepared first-time-in-college (FTIC) students who would have previously been required to take developmental math and the passing rates for the students electing to take Intermediate Algebra (the most common gateway math course in Florida).

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Toby Park, Chenoa S. Woods, Shouping Hu, Tamara Bertrand Jones & David Tandberg, The Journal of Higher Education, 2017.

Creating Accelerated Pathways for Student Success in Mathematics: A Snapshot of Courses Offered at the Launch of the Mathematics Pathways to Completion Project.  The goal of the MPC project was that students would have the opportunity to complete a transferable, college-level mathematics course aligned to their program of study within one year of enrollment, regardless of their initial level of preparation.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Adnan Moussa and Susan Bickerstaff, Community College Research Center, October 2019.

Dana Center Mathematics Pathways  Learn about math pathways, read about the evidence supporting pathways and review essential Ideas for people in different professional roles. 


Issues and Concerns

Emerging Issues in Mathematics Pathways: Case Studies, Scans of the Field, & Recommendations   The Emerging Issues in Mathematics Pathways: Case Studies, Scans of the Field, and Recommendations monograph brings together diverse voices to discuss critical topics, raise questions, and examine the future of mathematics pathways. True to the Dana Center’s strategy of engaging stakeholders across the system, this publication includes perspectives from college and university mathematics faculty, advisors, administrators, and system leaders along with Dana Center policy analysts, curriculum developers, and implementation specialists.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Charles A. Dana Center at The University of Texas at Austin, 2019. Monograph

College Examples

Enhanced Mathematics—A Co-requisite Approach to Developmental Mathematics. Austin Peay State University, 2012.   APSU has developed an alternative mathematics skills development approach whereby students are immediately enrolled in a credit bearing class, with supplementary instruction to provide just-in-time support. This method provides significantly superior success rates, while also creating significant cost savings to both the institutions and the student.

High Impact Practices


"Also called a capstone experience, culminating project, or senior exhibition, among many other terms, a capstone project is a multifaceted assignment that serves as a culminating academic and intellectual experience for students, typically during their final year of high school or middle school, or at the end of an academic program or learning-pathway experience." (Glossary of Education Reform, 2016.)

Article: Understanding the Capstone Experience through the Voices of Students. McGill, Patsy Tinsley, Journal of General Education. 2012  [ACC Login Required]

Collaborative activities.

"Collaborative learning combines two key goals: learning to work and solve problems in the company of others, and sharpening one’s own understanding by listening seriously to the insights of others, especially those with different backgrounds and life experiences. Approaches range from study groups within a course, to team-based assignments and writing, to cooperative projects and research."High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008)

Article: A Collaborative Activity for Generating Ideas in the Writing Classroom. Brittain, Elise, English Teaching Forum, 2019. [ACC Login Required]


"A student portfolio is a compilation of academic work and other forms of educational evidence assembled for the purpose of (1) evaluating coursework quality, learning progress, and academic achievement; (2) determining whether students have met learning standards or other academic requirements for courses, grade-level promotion, and graduation; (3) helping students reflect on their academic goals and progress as learners; and (4) creating a lasting archive of academic work products, accomplishments, and other documentation." (Glossary of Education Reform, 2016).

Article: Using ePortfolio to Document and Deepen the Impact of HIPs on Learning Dispositions. Occasional Paper #32. Kuh, George D.; Gambino, Laura M.; Bresciani Ludvik, Marilee; O'Donnell, Ken, National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment, 2018.

Equity Diversity and inclusion.

"In education, the term equity refers to the principle of fairness. While it is often used interchangeably with the related principle of equality, equity encompasses a wide variety of educational models, programs, and strategies that may be considered fair, but not necessarily equal. It is has been said that “equity is the process; equality is the outcome,” given that equity—what is fair and just—may not, in the process of educating students, reflect strict equality—what is applied, allocated, or distributed equally." (Glossary of Education Reform, 2016).

First-year Seminars.

"Many schools now build into the curriculum first-year seminars or other programs that bring small groups of students together with faculty or staff on a regular basis. The highest-quality first-year experiences place a strong emphasis on critical inquiry, frequent writing, information literacy, collaborative learning, and other skills that develop students’ intellectual and practical competencies"  High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008).

Article: First-Year Seminars: A Comparison of Course Characteristics and High Impact Practices at Two-Year Colleges" Forrest C. Lane and Andrew P. Miller, Journal of College Academic Support Program, 2019.

Integrating Technology.

Article: How and Why Higher Education Institutions Use Technology in Developmental Education Programming. A CAPR Working Paper.     Natow, Rebecca S.; Reddy, Vikash; Grant, Markeisha; Columbia University, Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Readiness (CAPR). 2017.

Learning community.

"Learning communities and curricular reform: “Academic apprenticeships” for developmental students." Malnarich, G New Directions for Community Colleges, 2005. [ACC Login Required]


"In these programs, field-based “experiential learning” with community partners is an instructional strategy—and often a required part of the course. The idea is to give students direct experience with issues they are studying in the curriculum and with ongoing efforts to analyze and solve problems in the community."  High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008).

Article: "Hybrid High-Impact Pedagogies: Integrating Service-Learning with Three Other High-Impact Pedagogies." Robert G. Bringle, Michigan Journal of Community Service-learning, 2017.

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