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TX Corequisite Project: Research



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Promising Practices in Developmental Education.  This publication is devoted to the dissemination of promising practices and is dedicated to the faculty, staff, and administrators in the field of developmental education.

          Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Michael C, McConnell (editor), TX DEPCO, Texas State University, 2017. Monograph.


Assessing the Effect of Corequisite English Instruction Using a Randomized Controlled Trial.  This report from the network's RAND/AIR team examines the impact of corequisite remediation on students underprepared  in reading and writing and whether corequisites have differential impacts on students with different characteristics. We examine the short-term impacts of three different approaches to corequisite remediation that were implemented at five large urban community colleges in Texas, and we explore whether corequisites have differential impacts on students with different characteristics.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents College Completion Network. May 2020.


Accelerated Developmental Reading and Writing Coursework and Student Preparedness for College-level Reading-intensive and Writing-intensive Courses in Texas Community Colleges  This project examined the effects of a state-wide curricular shift in developmental education course offerings on student success in college level courses at public community colleges in Texas. Specifically, it evaluated the efficacy of accelerated developmental integrated reading and writing (INRW) courses compared to non-accelerated, separate developmental reading and developmental writing courses in terms of the key metric of students passing their first reading- or writing intensive college-level course.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Education Research Center, University of Texas. February 2018.


Reforming English Pathways at California’s Community Colleges.  In this report, we focus on reforms to developmental English pathways at California’s community colleges. We examine different approaches to reform and their prevalence, and present new evidence on the effectiveness of one of the most common reforms, one-semester acceleration.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Mejia, Marisol Cuellar; Rodriguez, Olga; Johnson, Hans; Brooks, Bonnie, 2018.

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ACLT 052: Academic Literacy--An Integrated, Accelerated Model for Developmental Reading and Writing  This article outlines ACLT 052, an integrated, accelerated developmental reading and writing course that emphasizes critical thinking. Using an academic literacy model, this course allows students to sharpen their college -level literacy skills, while also addressing the affective barriers to their academic success. The specifics of the curricular, pedagogical and assessment practices of the course are provided, along with data demonstrating the positive impact it is having on student success.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Sharon M. Hayes and Jeanine L. Williams, NADE Digest article, 2016.


Best Practices and Challenges in Integrated Reading and Writing, Part 1  [TexShare Login Required]  The purpose of this study was to learn about the challenges and preferred strategies for teaching Integrated Reading and Writing (IRW) firsthand, from the instructors charged with developing and delivering these courses. The information was collected from participants in a professional development event hosted by the National Association for Developmental Education (NADE).

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents D. Patrick Saxon, Nara M. Martirosyan, & Nicholas T. Vick., Journal of Developmental Education, 2016.


Best Practices and Challenges inIntegrated Reading and W riting: A Survey ofField Professionals, Part 2  This is the second of a two-part column that reports the results of a qualitative study of instructors and their implementation of Integrated Reading and Writing (IRW) courses. The study participants include members of the National Association for Developmental Education (NADE) and had attended an IRW professional development event at the NADE 2015 annual conference. A listing and discussion of the most popular strategies applied in teaching IRW courses are described here along with some general discussion and conclusions.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Saxon, D. P., Martirosyan, N. M., & Vick, N. T, Journal of Developmental Education, 2016


Contextualizing Developmental Reading through Information Literacy  This study focused on a redesigned reading program that integrated project-based activities through the contextualization of reading and information literacy strategies using library databases. Students completing the new reading curriculum were compared to students who had completed a traditional reading curriculum to assess for differences in information literacy and reading skills, course completion, persistence, and gateway course registration. Students in the contextualized reading curriculum outperformed students in the textbook curriculum on information literacy skills, and both groups grew in reading strategies.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Zimmerer, Mary; Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Chuppa-Cornell, Kim; Sindel-Arrington, Tricia; Beilman, Janelle, Journal of Developmental Education, 2018.


Experiences of faculty of paired developmental integrated reading and writing and college composition courses at a south Texas community college  The study specifically explored faculty perceptions of the effectiveness, benefits and challenges, and institutional support of the pairing of developmental INRW and ENGL 1301.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Marissa Guerrero-Longoria, Dissertation - Texas Tech University, 2017.


From “Additive” to “Integrative”: Experiences of FacultyTeaching Developmental Integrated Reading and Writing Courses.  This paper documents the perceptions and experiences of faculty members in the midst of statewide reform efforts in Virginia and North Carolina to integrate developmental reading and writing courses. Using interview and focus group data from 161 faculty and administrators in both states (combined) as well as three detailed case studies of faculty teaching newly integrated courses, we describe how departments and faculty approached the task of course integration. 

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Susan Bickerstaff, Julia Raufman, Community College Research Center, 2017.


Instructional Approaches in Developmental English.  The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore faculty perceptions of teaching in developmental English classes, specifically Developmental Reading and English (DRE) classes. Participants reported experiences in their classrooms, offered reflections on teaching DRE courses, and provided insight into their instructional approaches in the classroom. The following central research question (Creswell, 2013) guided the research process for this study. What instructional approaches do developmental faculty in DRE English classes perceive to be most effective in supporting student learning?

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Nicholas T. Vick, Research in Developmental Education article, 2015.


How Integrating Reading and Writing Supports Student Success  [TexShare Login Required]  The traditional remedial, stand-alone reading and writing courses at one community college were redesigned to create a single integrated reading and writing developmental course (IRW). Unlike a truly accelerated course, this IRW course combined two courses at the same level and therefore highlights the impact of integrating reading and writing. Data show that students in the IRW class were more successful than students in traditional remedial classes, both in developmental and in transfer English.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Kuehner, A. V., & Hurley, J., Journal of Developmental Education, 2019. 


Integrating Metacognition into a Developmental Reading and Writing Course to Promote Skill Transfer: An Examination of Student Perceptions and Experiences  [TexShare Login Required]  The article discusses a study which examined the experiences and perceptions of students at a college in New York City who were enrolled in an integrated reading and writing course designed to help them connect the literacy skills they learned in the course to other contexts. Topics covered include a literature review on the ways students perceive learning, the role that metacognitive skill and strategy instruction play in the courses, and how students view writing as a process.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Pacello, James, Journal of College Reading & Learning, 2014.


Reading, writing, and assistive technology: an integrated developmental curriculum for college students  This article explains how a combination of sound instructional strategies for improving reading comprehension, accuracy, fluency, and writing with assistive technology helped students make gains beyond what they had achieved previously.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents  Ellen U. Engstrom, 2005.


Integrating Reading and Writing Instruction in an Accelerated Curriculum: An Interview with Katie Hern, Hern speaks nationally on remediation reform and integrated reading and writing. Her publications focus on the need to rethink placement, design principles for teaching accelerated English and math, pedagogy for integrated reading and writing, and the equity imperative of transforming remediation.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Norman A. Stahl, The Journal of Higher Education article, 2017.



Reading, Writing, and English Course Pathways when Developmental Education is Optional: Course Enrollment and Success for Underprepared First-time-in-College Students  This study focuses on exempt students—those who had the option to bypass developmental education—who were also underprepared, and their initial course selection and subsequent success in their gateway (introductory college-level) English course.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Chenoa S. Woods, Toby Park, Shouping Hu, Tamara Betrand Jone, Community College Review, 2018.


Research-Based Integrated Reading and Writing Course Development  The Integrated Reading and Writing course researched, created, taught, and revised for the practicum was demonstrably successful in the context where it was offered, with the course passage rates of the first two semesters (75% and 82%, respectively) climbing to almost twice those of the separate developmental reading and developmental writing passage rates of the previous academic year (43%).

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Calisa A. Pierce, JOURNAL of DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION, 2017.

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Issues and Concerns

Student Response to a Corequisite Pilot Program: A Retrospective.  This retrospective article presents the results of a pilot study on student perceptions of a corequisite model for developmental writing. Qualitative survey data was collected at the beginning, middle, and end of Fall 2013 at a large public university in central Texas. The major implication of this study is the importance of including student voices in the implementation of models for developmental education.

Notes, Office, Pages, Papers, Print, Report, Documents Threadgill, E. J., Journal of College Academic Support. 2018.

Instructor Resources

Community College English Instructor Resources   "I've designed this OER collection so that you, my fellow instructor, can easily find high-quality educational resources for your students. If your students are like mine, they can no longer afford textbooks. You can use these resources, for free, instead."

Mike Mutschelknaus, Rochester Community and Technical College. 2016.


Hippocampus is a free, core academic web site that delivers rich multimedia content--videos, animations, and simulations--on general education subjects to middle-school and high-school teachers and college professors, and their students, free of charge. Teachers project HippoCampus content during classroom learning and assign it for computer labs and homework. Students use the site in the evenings for study and exam prep. Users do not need to register or log in to use the site.


Merlot Pedagogy Community Portal OER  The MERLOT Pedagogy Portal is designed to help you learn about the variety of instructional strategies and issues that could help you become a better teacher. The resources you’ll find in the Pedagogy Portal should apply to teaching a variety of disciplines.


Some Sounds of Success: Using Integrated Reading-Writing Corequisites and Open Educational Resources,

Ann Palmer and Julie Wauchope, Austin Community College.


Texas House Bill 2223: Two Examples of Corequisite Models Two Examples of Corequisite, 

ModelsINRW 0302/ BCIS (Fall 2018)Dr. Lynnda Shields and INRW 0302/Sociology 101 (Fall 2018)Professor Patience Ogedegbe, San Jacinto College, 2018.

High Impact Practices


"Also called a capstone experience, culminating project, or senior exhibition, among many other terms, a capstone project is a multifaceted assignment that serves as a culminating academic and intellectual experience for students, typically during their final year of high school or middle school, or at the end of an academic program or learning-pathway experience." (Glossary of Education Reform, 2016.)

Article: Understanding the Capstone Experience through the Voices of Students. McGill, Patsy Tinsley, Journal of General Education. 2012  [ACC Login Required]

Collaborative activities.

"Collaborative learning combines two key goals: learning to work and solve problems in the company of others, and sharpening one’s own understanding by listening seriously to the insights of others, especially those with different backgrounds and life experiences. Approaches range from study groups within a course, to team-based assignments and writing, to cooperative projects and research."High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008)

Article: A Collaborative Activity for Generating Ideas in the Writing Classroom. Brittain, Elise, English Teaching Forum, 2019. [ACC Login Required]


"A student portfolio is a compilation of academic work and other forms of educational evidence assembled for the purpose of (1) evaluating coursework quality, learning progress, and academic achievement; (2) determining whether students have met learning standards or other academic requirements for courses, grade-level promotion, and graduation; (3) helping students reflect on their academic goals and progress as learners; and (4) creating a lasting archive of academic work products, accomplishments, and other documentation." (Glossary of Education Reform, 2016).

Article: Using ePortfolio to Document and Deepen the Impact of HIPs on Learning Dispositions. Occasional Paper #32. Kuh, George D.; Gambino, Laura M.; Bresciani Ludvik, Marilee; O'Donnell, Ken, National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment, 2018.

Equity Diversity and inclusion.

"In education, the term equity refers to the principle of fairness. While it is often used interchangeably with the related principle of equality, equity encompasses a wide variety of educational models, programs, and strategies that may be considered fair, but not necessarily equal. It is has been said that “equity is the process; equality is the outcome,” given that equity—what is fair and just—may not, in the process of educating students, reflect strict equality—what is applied, allocated, or distributed equally." (Glossary of Education Reform, 2016).

First-year Seminars.

"Many schools now build into the curriculum first-year seminars or other programs that bring small groups of students together with faculty or staff on a regular basis. The highest-quality first-year experiences place a strong emphasis on critical inquiry, frequent writing, information literacy, collaborative learning, and other skills that develop students’ intellectual and practical competencies"  High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008).

Article: First-Year Seminars: A Comparison of Course Characteristics and High Impact Practices at Two-Year Colleges" Forrest C. Lane and Andrew P. Miller, Journal of College Academic Support Program, 2019.

Integrating Technology.

Article: How and Why Higher Education Institutions Use Technology in Developmental Education Programming. A CAPR Working Paper.     Natow, Rebecca S.; Reddy, Vikash; Grant, Markeisha; Columbia University, Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Readiness (CAPR). 2017.

As postsecondary institutions increasingly integrate technology into developmental education, it becomes important to understand how technology is used in these programs, what challenges institutions have encountered relating to the technology, and what considerations institutional leaders take into account when deciding whether and how to integrate technology in developmental education. 

Learning community.

"Learning communities and curricular reform: “Academic apprenticeships” for developmental students." Malnarich, G New Directions for Community Colleges, 2005. [ACC Login Required]

Developmental learning community programs that are respectful of students' circumstances, supportive of their educational aims, and thoughtful about the purpose of education can be extremely effective in helping developmental students achieve their educational goals.


"In these programs, field-based “experiential learning” with community partners is an instructional strategy—and often a required part of the course. The idea is to give students direct experience with issues they are studying in the curriculum and with ongoing efforts to analyze and solve problems in the community."  High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008).

Article: "Hybrid High-Impact Pedagogies: Integrating Service-Learning with Three Other High-Impact Pedagogies." Robert G. Bringle, Michigan Journal of Community Service-learning, 2017.


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